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mke2fs.c

/*
 * mke2fs.c - Make a ext2fs filesystem.
 * 
 * Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
 *    2003, 2004, 2005 by Theodore Ts'o.
 *
 * %Begin-Header%
 * This file may be redistributed under the terms of the GNU Public
 * License.
 * %End-Header%
 */

/* Usage: mke2fs [options] device
 * 
 * The device may be a block device or a image of one, but this isn't
 * enforced (but it's not much fun on a character device :-). 
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>
#ifdef __linux__
#include <sys/utsname.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_GETOPT_H
#include <getopt.h>
#else
extern char *optarg;
extern int optind;
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_STDLIB_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_ERRNO_H
#include <errno.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_MNTENT_H
#include <mntent.h>
#endif
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

#include "ext2fs/ext2_fs.h"
#include "et/com_err.h"
#include "uuid/uuid.h"
#include "e2p/e2p.h"
#include "ext2fs/ext2fs.h"
#include "util.h"
#include "../version.h"
#include "nls-enable.h"

#define STRIDE_LENGTH 8

#ifndef __sparc__
#define ZAP_BOOTBLOCK
#endif

extern int isatty(int);
extern FILE *fpopen(const char *cmd, const char *mode);

const char * program_name = "mke2fs";
const char * device_name /* = NULL */;

/* Command line options */
int   cflag;
int   verbose;
int   quiet;
int   super_only;
int   force;
int   noaction;
int   journal_size;
int   journal_flags;
char  *bad_blocks_filename;
__u32 fs_stride;

struct ext2_super_block param;
char *creator_os;
char *volume_label;
char *mount_dir;
char *journal_device;
int sync_kludge;  /* Set using the MKE2FS_SYNC env. option */

int sys_page_size = 4096;
int linux_version_code = 0;

static void usage(void)
{
      fprintf(stderr, _("Usage: %s [-c|-t|-l filename] [-b block-size] "
      "[-f fragment-size]\n\t[-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options]"
      " [-N number-of-inodes]\n\t[-m reserved-blocks-percentage] "
      "[-o creator-os] [-g blocks-per-group]\n\t[-L volume-label] "
      "[-M last-mounted-directory] [-O feature[,...]]\n\t"
      "[-r fs-revision] [-R options] [-qvSV] device [blocks-count]\n"),
            program_name);
      exit(1);
}

static int int_log2(int arg)
{
      int   l = 0;

      arg >>= 1;
      while (arg) {
            l++;
            arg >>= 1;
      }
      return l;
}

static int int_log10(unsigned int arg)
{
      int   l;

      for (l=0; arg ; l++)
            arg = arg / 10;
      return l;
}

static int parse_version_number(const char *s)
{
      int   major, minor, rev;
      char  *endptr;
      const char *cp = s;

      if (!s)
            return 0;
      major = strtol(cp, &endptr, 10);
      if (cp == endptr || *endptr != '.')
            return 0;
      cp = endptr + 1;
      minor = strtol(cp, &endptr, 10);
      if (cp == endptr || *endptr != '.')
            return 0;
      cp = endptr + 1;
      rev = strtol(cp, &endptr, 10);
      if (cp == endptr)
            return 0;
      return ((((major * 256) + minor) * 256) + rev);
}



/*
 * This function sets the default parameters for a filesystem
 *
 * The type is specified by the user.  The size is the maximum size
 * (in megabytes) for which a set of parameters applies, with a size
 * of zero meaning that it is the default parameter for the type.
 * Note that order is important in the table below.
 */
#define DEF_MAX_BLOCKSIZE -1
static char default_str[] = "default";
struct mke2fs_defaults {
      const char  *type;
      int         size;
      int         blocksize;
      int         inode_ratio;
} settings[] = {
      { default_str, 0, 4096, 8192 },
      { default_str, 512, 1024, 4096 },
      { default_str, 3, 1024, 8192 },
      { "journal", 0, 4096, 8192 },
      { "news", 0, 4096, 4096 },
      { "largefile", 0, 4096, 1024 * 1024 },
      { "largefile4", 0, 4096, 4096 * 1024 },
      { 0, 0, 0, 0},
};

static void set_fs_defaults(const char *fs_type,
                      struct ext2_super_block *super,
                      int blocksize, int sector_size,
                      int *inode_ratio)
{
      int   megs;
      int   ratio = 0;
      struct mke2fs_defaults *p;
      int   use_bsize = 1024;

      megs = super->s_blocks_count * (EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(super) / 1024) / 1024;
      if (inode_ratio)
            ratio = *inode_ratio;
      if (!fs_type)
            fs_type = default_str;
      for (p = settings; p->type; p++) {
            if ((strcmp(p->type, fs_type) != 0) &&
                (strcmp(p->type, default_str) != 0))
                  continue;
            if ((p->size != 0) && (megs > p->size))
                  continue;
            if (ratio == 0)
                  *inode_ratio = p->inode_ratio < blocksize ?
                        blocksize : p->inode_ratio;
            use_bsize = p->blocksize;
      }
      if (blocksize <= 0) {
            if (use_bsize == DEF_MAX_BLOCKSIZE) {
                  use_bsize = sys_page_size;
                  if ((linux_version_code < (2*65536 + 6*256)) &&
                      (use_bsize > 4096))
                        use_bsize = 4096;
            }
            if (sector_size && use_bsize < sector_size)
                  use_bsize = sector_size;
            if ((blocksize < 0) && (use_bsize < (-blocksize)))
                  use_bsize = -blocksize;
            blocksize = use_bsize;
            super->s_blocks_count /= blocksize / 1024;
      }
      super->s_log_frag_size = super->s_log_block_size =
            int_log2(blocksize >> EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_LOG_SIZE);
}


/*
 * Helper function for read_bb_file and test_disk
 */
static void invalid_block(ext2_filsys fs EXT2FS_ATTR((unused)), blk_t blk)
{
      fprintf(stderr, _("Bad block %u out of range; ignored.\n"), blk);
      return;
}

/*
 * Reads the bad blocks list from a file
 */
static void read_bb_file(ext2_filsys fs, badblocks_list *bb_list,
                   const char *bad_blocks_file)
{
      FILE        *f;
      errcode_t   retval;

      f = fopen(bad_blocks_file, "r");
      if (!f) {
            com_err("read_bad_blocks_file", errno,
                  _("while trying to open %s"), bad_blocks_file);
            exit(1);
      }
      retval = ext2fs_read_bb_FILE(fs, f, bb_list, invalid_block);
      fclose (f);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_read_bb_FILE", retval,
                  _("while reading in list of bad blocks from file"));
            exit(1);
      }
}

/*
 * Runs the badblocks program to test the disk
 */
static void test_disk(ext2_filsys fs, badblocks_list *bb_list)
{
      FILE        *f;
      errcode_t   retval;
      char        buf[1024];

      sprintf(buf, "badblocks -b %d %s%s%s %d", fs->blocksize,
            quiet ? "" : "-s ", (cflag > 1) ? "-w " : "",
            fs->device_name, fs->super->s_blocks_count);
      if (verbose)
            printf(_("Running command: %s\n"), buf);
      f = popen(buf, "r");
      if (!f) {
            com_err("popen", errno,
                  _("while trying run '%s'"), buf);
            exit(1);
      }
      retval = ext2fs_read_bb_FILE(fs, f, bb_list, invalid_block);
      pclose(f);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_read_bb_FILE", retval,
                  _("while processing list of bad blocks from program"));
            exit(1);
      }
}

static void handle_bad_blocks(ext2_filsys fs, badblocks_list bb_list)
{
      dgrp_t                  i;
      blk_t             j;
      unsigned          must_be_good;
      blk_t             blk;
      badblocks_iterate bb_iter;
      errcode_t         retval;
      blk_t             group_block;
      int               group;
      int               group_bad;

      if (!bb_list)
            return;
      
      /*
       * The primary superblock and group descriptors *must* be
       * good; if not, abort.
       */
      must_be_good = fs->super->s_first_data_block + 1 + fs->desc_blocks;
      for (i = fs->super->s_first_data_block; i <= must_be_good; i++) {
            if (ext2fs_badblocks_list_test(bb_list, i)) {
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Block %d in primary "
                        "superblock/group descriptor area bad.\n"), i);
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Blocks %d through %d must be good "
                        "in order to build a filesystem.\n"),
                        fs->super->s_first_data_block, must_be_good);
                  fputs(_("Aborting....\n"), stderr);
                  exit(1);
            }
      }

      /*
       * See if any of the bad blocks are showing up in the backup
       * superblocks and/or group descriptors.  If so, issue a
       * warning and adjust the block counts appropriately.
       */
      group_block = fs->super->s_first_data_block +
            fs->super->s_blocks_per_group;
      
      for (i = 1; i < fs->group_desc_count; i++) {
            group_bad = 0;
            for (j=0; j < fs->desc_blocks+1; j++) {
                  if (ext2fs_badblocks_list_test(bb_list,
                                           group_block + j)) {
                        if (!group_bad) 
                              fprintf(stderr,
_("Warning: the backup superblock/group descriptors at block %d contain\n"
"     bad blocks.\n\n"),
                                    group_block);
                        group_bad++;
                        group = ext2fs_group_of_blk(fs, group_block+j);
                        fs->group_desc[group].bg_free_blocks_count++;
                        fs->super->s_free_blocks_count++;
                  }
            }
            group_block += fs->super->s_blocks_per_group;
      }
      
      /*
       * Mark all the bad blocks as used...
       */
      retval = ext2fs_badblocks_list_iterate_begin(bb_list, &bb_iter);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_badblocks_list_iterate_begin", retval,
                  _("while marking bad blocks as used"));
            exit(1);
      }
      while (ext2fs_badblocks_list_iterate(bb_iter, &blk)) 
            ext2fs_mark_block_bitmap(fs->block_map, blk);
      ext2fs_badblocks_list_iterate_end(bb_iter);
}

/*
 * These functions implement a generalized progress meter.
 */
struct progress_struct {
      char        format[20];
      char        backup[80];
      __u32       max;
      int         skip_progress;
};

static void progress_init(struct progress_struct *progress,
                    const char *label,__u32 max)
{
      int   i;

      memset(progress, 0, sizeof(struct progress_struct));
      if (quiet)
            return;

      /*
       * Figure out how many digits we need
       */
      i = int_log10(max);
      sprintf(progress->format, "%%%dd/%%%dld", i, i);
      memset(progress->backup, '\b', sizeof(progress->backup)-1);
      progress->backup[sizeof(progress->backup)-1] = 0;
      if ((2*i)+1 < (int) sizeof(progress->backup))
            progress->backup[(2*i)+1] = 0;
      progress->max = max;

      progress->skip_progress = 0;
      if (getenv("MKE2FS_SKIP_PROGRESS"))
            progress->skip_progress++;

      fputs(label, stdout);
      fflush(stdout);
}

static void progress_update(struct progress_struct *progress, __u32 val)
{
      if ((progress->format[0] == 0) || progress->skip_progress)
            return;
      printf(progress->format, val, progress->max);
      fputs(progress->backup, stdout);
}

static void progress_close(struct progress_struct *progress)
{
      if (progress->format[0] == 0)
            return;
      fputs(_("done                            \n"), stdout);
}


/*
 * Helper function which zeros out _num_ blocks starting at _blk_.  In
 * case of an error, the details of the error is returned via _ret_blk_
 * and _ret_count_ if they are non-NULL pointers.  Returns 0 on
 * success, and an error code on an error.
 *
 * As a special case, if the first argument is NULL, then it will
 * attempt to free the static zeroizing buffer.  (This is to keep
 * programs that check for memory leaks happy.)
 */
static errcode_t zero_blocks(ext2_filsys fs, blk_t blk, int num,
                       struct progress_struct *progress,
                       blk_t *ret_blk, int *ret_count)
{
      int         j, count, next_update, next_update_incr;
      static char *buf;
      errcode_t   retval;

      /* If fs is null, clean up the static buffer and return */
      if (!fs) {
            if (buf) {
                  free(buf);
                  buf = 0;
            }
            return 0;
      }
      /* Allocate the zeroizing buffer if necessary */
      if (!buf) {
            buf = malloc(fs->blocksize * STRIDE_LENGTH);
            if (!buf) {
                  com_err("malloc", ENOMEM,
                        _("while allocating zeroizing buffer"));
                  exit(1);
            }
            memset(buf, 0, fs->blocksize * STRIDE_LENGTH);
      }
      /* OK, do the write loop */
      next_update = 0;
      next_update_incr = num / 100;
      if (next_update_incr < 1)
            next_update_incr = 1;
      for (j=0; j < num; j += STRIDE_LENGTH, blk += STRIDE_LENGTH) {
            count = num - j;
            if (count > STRIDE_LENGTH)
                  count = STRIDE_LENGTH;
            retval = io_channel_write_blk(fs->io, blk, count, buf);
            if (retval) {
                  if (ret_count)
                        *ret_count = count;
                  if (ret_blk)
                        *ret_blk = blk;
                  return retval;
            }
            if (progress && j > next_update) {
                  next_update += num / 100;
                  progress_update(progress, blk);
            }
      }
      return 0;
}     

static void write_inode_tables(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      errcode_t   retval;
      blk_t       blk;
      dgrp_t            i;
      int         num;
      struct progress_struct progress;

      if (quiet)
            memset(&progress, 0, sizeof(progress));
      else
            progress_init(&progress, _("Writing inode tables: "),
                        fs->group_desc_count);

      for (i = 0; i < fs->group_desc_count; i++) {
            progress_update(&progress, i);
            
            blk = fs->group_desc[i].bg_inode_table;
            num = fs->inode_blocks_per_group;

            retval = zero_blocks(fs, blk, num, 0, &blk, &num);
            if (retval) {
                  fprintf(stderr, _("\nCould not write %d blocks "
                        "in inode table starting at %d: %s\n"),
                        num, blk, error_message(retval));
                  exit(1);
            }
            if (sync_kludge) {
                  if (sync_kludge == 1)
                        sync();
                  else if ((i % sync_kludge) == 0)
                        sync();
            }
      }
      zero_blocks(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
      progress_close(&progress);
}

static void create_root_dir(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      errcode_t   retval;
      struct ext2_inode inode;

      retval = ext2fs_mkdir(fs, EXT2_ROOT_INO, EXT2_ROOT_INO, 0);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_mkdir", retval, _("while creating root dir"));
            exit(1);
      }
      if (geteuid()) {
            retval = ext2fs_read_inode(fs, EXT2_ROOT_INO, &inode);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err("ext2fs_read_inode", retval,
                        _("while reading root inode"));
                  exit(1);
            }
            inode.i_uid = getuid();
            if (inode.i_uid)
                  inode.i_gid = getgid();
            retval = ext2fs_write_new_inode(fs, EXT2_ROOT_INO, &inode);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err("ext2fs_write_inode", retval,
                        _("while setting root inode ownership"));
                  exit(1);
            }
      }
}

static void create_lost_and_found(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      errcode_t         retval;
      ext2_ino_t        ino;
      const char        *name = "lost+found";
      int               i;
      int               lpf_size = 0;

      fs->umask = 077;
      retval = ext2fs_mkdir(fs, EXT2_ROOT_INO, 0, name);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_mkdir", retval,
                  _("while creating /lost+found"));
            exit(1);
      }

      retval = ext2fs_lookup(fs, EXT2_ROOT_INO, name, strlen(name), 0, &ino);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2_lookup", retval,
                  _("while looking up /lost+found"));
            exit(1);
      }
      
      for (i=1; i < EXT2_NDIR_BLOCKS; i++) {
            if ((lpf_size += fs->blocksize) >= 16*1024)
                  break;
            retval = ext2fs_expand_dir(fs, ino);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err("ext2fs_expand_dir", retval,
                        _("while expanding /lost+found"));
                  exit(1);
            }
      }
}

static void create_bad_block_inode(ext2_filsys fs, badblocks_list bb_list)
{
      errcode_t   retval;
      
      ext2fs_mark_inode_bitmap(fs->inode_map, EXT2_BAD_INO);
      fs->group_desc[0].bg_free_inodes_count--;
      fs->super->s_free_inodes_count--;
      retval = ext2fs_update_bb_inode(fs, bb_list);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_update_bb_inode", retval,
                  _("while setting bad block inode"));
            exit(1);
      }

}

static void reserve_inodes(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      ext2_ino_t  i;
      int         group;

      for (i = EXT2_ROOT_INO + 1; i < EXT2_FIRST_INODE(fs->super); i++) {
            ext2fs_mark_inode_bitmap(fs->inode_map, i);
            group = ext2fs_group_of_ino(fs, i);
            fs->group_desc[group].bg_free_inodes_count--;
            fs->super->s_free_inodes_count--;
      }
      ext2fs_mark_ib_dirty(fs);
}

#define BSD_DISKMAGIC   (0x82564557UL)  /* The disk magic number */
#define BSD_MAGICDISK   (0x57455682UL)  /* The disk magic number reversed */
#define BSD_LABEL_OFFSET        64

static void zap_sector(ext2_filsys fs, int sect, int nsect)
{
      char *buf;
      int retval;
      unsigned int *magic;

      buf = malloc(512*nsect);
      if (!buf) {
            printf(_("Out of memory erasing sectors %d-%d\n"),
                   sect, sect + nsect - 1);
            exit(1);
      }

      if (sect == 0) {
            /* Check for a BSD disklabel, and don't erase it if so */
            retval = io_channel_read_blk(fs->io, 0, -512, buf);
            if (retval)
                  fprintf(stderr,
                        _("Warning: could not read block 0: %s\n"),
                        error_message(retval));
            else {
                  magic = (unsigned int *) (buf + BSD_LABEL_OFFSET);
                  if ((*magic == BSD_DISKMAGIC) ||
                      (*magic == BSD_MAGICDISK))
                        return;
            }
      }

      memset(buf, 0, 512*nsect);
      io_channel_set_blksize(fs->io, 512);
      retval = io_channel_write_blk(fs->io, sect, -512*nsect, buf);
      io_channel_set_blksize(fs->io, fs->blocksize);
      free(buf);
      if (retval)
            fprintf(stderr, _("Warning: could not erase sector %d: %s\n"),
                  sect, error_message(retval));
}

static void create_journal_dev(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      struct progress_struct progress;
      errcode_t         retval;
      char              *buf;
      blk_t             blk;
      int               count;

      retval = ext2fs_create_journal_superblock(fs,
                          fs->super->s_blocks_count, 0, &buf);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("create_journal_dev", retval,
                  _("while initializing journal superblock"));
            exit(1);
      }
      if (quiet)
            memset(&progress, 0, sizeof(progress));
      else
            progress_init(&progress, _("Zeroing journal device: "),
                        fs->super->s_blocks_count);

      retval = zero_blocks(fs, 0, fs->super->s_blocks_count,
                       &progress, &blk, &count);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("create_journal_dev", retval,
                  _("while zeroing journal device (block %u, count %d)"),
                  blk, count);
            exit(1);
      }
      zero_blocks(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);

      retval = io_channel_write_blk(fs->io,
                              fs->super->s_first_data_block+1,
                              1, buf);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("create_journal_dev", retval,
                  _("while writing journal superblock"));
            exit(1);
      }
      progress_close(&progress);
}

static void show_stats(ext2_filsys fs)
{
      struct ext2_super_block *s = fs->super;
      char              buf[80];
        char                    *os;
      blk_t             group_block;
      dgrp_t                  i;
      int               need, col_left;
      
      if (param.s_blocks_count != s->s_blocks_count)
            fprintf(stderr, _("warning: %d blocks unused.\n\n"),
                   param.s_blocks_count - s->s_blocks_count);

      memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
      strncpy(buf, s->s_volume_name, sizeof(s->s_volume_name));
      printf(_("Filesystem label=%s\n"), buf);
      fputs(_("OS type: "), stdout);
        os = e2p_os2string(fs->super->s_creator_os);
      fputs(os, stdout);
      free(os);
      printf("\n");
      printf(_("Block size=%u (log=%u)\n"), fs->blocksize,
            s->s_log_block_size);
      printf(_("Fragment size=%u (log=%u)\n"), fs->fragsize,
            s->s_log_frag_size);
      printf(_("%u inodes, %u blocks\n"), s->s_inodes_count,
             s->s_blocks_count);
      printf(_("%u blocks (%2.2f%%) reserved for the super user\n"),
            s->s_r_blocks_count,
             100.0 * s->s_r_blocks_count / s->s_blocks_count);
      printf(_("First data block=%u\n"), s->s_first_data_block);
      if (s->s_reserved_gdt_blocks)
            printf(_("Maximum filesystem blocks=%lu\n"),
                   (s->s_reserved_gdt_blocks + fs->desc_blocks) *
                   (fs->blocksize / sizeof(struct ext2_group_desc)) *
                   s->s_blocks_per_group);
      if (fs->group_desc_count > 1)
            printf(_("%u block groups\n"), fs->group_desc_count);
      else
            printf(_("%u block group\n"), fs->group_desc_count);
      printf(_("%u blocks per group, %u fragments per group\n"),
             s->s_blocks_per_group, s->s_frags_per_group);
      printf(_("%u inodes per group\n"), s->s_inodes_per_group);

      if (fs->group_desc_count == 1) {
            printf("\n");
            return;
      }

      printf(_("Superblock backups stored on blocks: "));
      group_block = s->s_first_data_block;
      col_left = 0;
      for (i = 1; i < fs->group_desc_count; i++) {
            group_block += s->s_blocks_per_group;
            if (!ext2fs_bg_has_super(fs, i))
                  continue;
            if (i != 1)
                  printf(", ");
            need = int_log10(group_block) + 2;
            if (need > col_left) {
                  printf("\n\t");
                  col_left = 72;
            }
            col_left -= need;
            printf("%u", group_block);
      }
      printf("\n\n");
}

/*
 * Set the S_CREATOR_OS field.  Return true if OS is known,
 * otherwise, 0.
 */
static int set_os(struct ext2_super_block *sb, char *os)
{
      if (isdigit (*os))
            sb->s_creator_os = atoi (os);
      else if (strcasecmp(os, "linux") == 0)
            sb->s_creator_os = EXT2_OS_LINUX;
      else if (strcasecmp(os, "GNU") == 0 || strcasecmp(os, "hurd") == 0)
            sb->s_creator_os = EXT2_OS_HURD;
      else if (strcasecmp(os, "masix") == 0)
            sb->s_creator_os = EXT2_OS_MASIX;
      else if (strcasecmp(os, "freebsd") == 0)
            sb->s_creator_os = EXT2_OS_FREEBSD;
      else if (strcasecmp(os, "lites") == 0)
            sb->s_creator_os = EXT2_OS_LITES;
      else
            return 0;
      return 1;
}

#define PATH_SET "PATH=/sbin"

static void parse_extended_opts(struct ext2_super_block *param, 
                        const char *opts)
{
      char  *buf, *token, *next, *p, *arg;
      int   len;
      int   r_usage = 0;

      len = strlen(opts);
      buf = malloc(len+1);
      if (!buf) {
            fprintf(stderr,
                  _("Couldn't allocate memory to parse options!\n"));
            exit(1);
      }
      strcpy(buf, opts);
      for (token = buf; token && *token; token = next) {
            p = strchr(token, ',');
            next = 0;
            if (p) {
                  *p = 0;
                  next = p+1;
            }
            arg = strchr(token, '=');
            if (arg) {
                  *arg = 0;
                  arg++;
            }
            if (strcmp(token, "stride") == 0) {
                  if (!arg) {
                        r_usage++;
                        continue;
                  }
                  fs_stride = strtoul(arg, &p, 0);
                  if (*p || (fs_stride == 0)) {
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              _("Invalid stride parameter.\n"));
                        r_usage++;
                        continue;
                  }
            } else if (!strcmp(token, "resize")) {
                  unsigned long resize, bpg, rsv_groups;
                  unsigned long group_desc_count, desc_blocks;
                  unsigned int gdpb, blocksize;
                  int rsv_gdb;

                  if (!arg) {
                        r_usage++;
                        continue;
                  }

                  resize = parse_num_blocks(arg, 
                                      param->s_log_block_size);

                  if (resize == 0) {
                        fprintf(stderr, 
                              _("Invalid resize parameter: %s\n"),
                              arg);
                        r_usage++;
                        continue;
                  }
                  if (resize <= param->s_blocks_count) {
                        fprintf(stderr, 
                              _("The resize maximum must be greater than the filesystem size.\n"));
                        r_usage++;
                        continue;
                  }

                  blocksize = EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(param);
                  bpg = param->s_blocks_per_group;
                  if (!bpg)
                        bpg = blocksize * 8;
                  gdpb = blocksize / sizeof(struct ext2_group_desc);
                  group_desc_count = (param->s_blocks_count +
                                  bpg - 1) / bpg;
                  desc_blocks = (group_desc_count +
                               gdpb - 1) / gdpb;
                  rsv_groups = (resize + bpg - 1) / bpg;
                  rsv_gdb = (rsv_groups + gdpb - 1) / gdpb - 
                        desc_blocks;
                  if (rsv_gdb > EXT2_ADDR_PER_BLOCK(param))
                        rsv_gdb = EXT2_ADDR_PER_BLOCK(param);

                  if (rsv_gdb > 0) {
                        param->s_feature_compat |=
                              EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_RESIZE_INODE;

                        param->s_reserved_gdt_blocks = rsv_gdb;
                  }
            } else
                  r_usage++;
      }
      if (r_usage) {
            fprintf(stderr, _("\nBad options specified.\n\n"
                  "Options are separated by commas, "
                  "and may take an argument which\n"
                  "\tis set off by an equals ('=') sign.\n\n"
                  "Valid raid options are:\n"
                  "\tstride=<stride length in blocks>\n"
                  "\tresize=<resize maximum size in blocks>\n\n"));
            exit(1);
      }
}     

static __u32 ok_features[3] = {
      EXT3_FEATURE_COMPAT_HAS_JOURNAL |
            EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_RESIZE_INODE |
            EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_DIR_INDEX,      /* Compat */
      EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_FILETYPE|           /* Incompat */
            EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_JOURNAL_DEV|
            EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_META_BG,
      EXT2_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER /* R/O compat */
};


static void PRS(int argc, char *argv[])
{
      int         b, c;
      int         size;
      char *            tmp;
      int         blocksize = 0;
      int         inode_ratio = 0;
      int         inode_size = 0;
      int         reserved_ratio = 5;
      int         sector_size = 0;
      int         show_version_only = 0;
      ext2_ino_t  num_inodes = 0;
      errcode_t   retval;
      char *            oldpath = getenv("PATH");
      char *            extended_opts = 0;
      const char *      fs_type = 0;
      blk_t       dev_size;
#ifdef __linux__
      struct            utsname ut;
#endif
      long        sysval;

      /* Update our PATH to include /sbin  */
      if (oldpath) {
            char *newpath;
            
            newpath = malloc(sizeof (PATH_SET) + 1 + strlen (oldpath));
            strcpy (newpath, PATH_SET);
            strcat (newpath, ":");
            strcat (newpath, oldpath);
            putenv (newpath);
      } else
            putenv (PATH_SET);

      tmp = getenv("MKE2FS_SYNC");
      if (tmp)
            sync_kludge = atoi(tmp);

      /* Determine the system page size if possible */
#ifdef HAVE_SYSCONF
#if (!defined(_SC_PAGESIZE) && defined(_SC_PAGE_SIZE))
#define _SC_PAGESIZE _SC_PAGE_SIZE
#endif
#ifdef _SC_PAGESIZE
      sysval = sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE);
      if (sysval > 0)
            sys_page_size = sysval;
#endif /* _SC_PAGESIZE */
#endif /* HAVE_SYSCONF */
      
      setbuf(stdout, NULL);
      setbuf(stderr, NULL);
      initialize_ext2_error_table();
      memset(&param, 0, sizeof(struct ext2_super_block));
      param.s_rev_level = 1;  /* Create revision 1 filesystems now */
      param.s_feature_incompat |= EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_FILETYPE;
      param.s_feature_ro_compat |= EXT2_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER;
#if 0
      param.s_feature_compat |= EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_DIR_INDEX;
#endif

#ifdef __linux__
      if (uname(&ut)) {
            perror("uname");
            exit(1);
      }
      linux_version_code = parse_version_number(ut.release);
      if (linux_version_code && linux_version_code < (2*65536 + 2*256)) {
            param.s_rev_level = 0;
            param.s_feature_incompat = 0;
            param.s_feature_compat = 0;
            param.s_feature_ro_compat = 0;
      }
#endif

      if (argc && *argv) {
            program_name = get_progname(*argv);

            /* If called as mkfs.ext3, create a journal inode */
            if (!strcmp(program_name, "mkfs.ext3"))
                  journal_size = -1;
      }

      while ((c = getopt (argc, argv,
                "b:cE:f:g:i:jl:m:no:qr:R:s:tvI:J:ST:FL:M:N:O:V")) != EOF) {
            switch (c) {
            case 'b':
                  blocksize = strtol(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  b = (blocksize > 0) ? blocksize : -blocksize;
                  if (b < EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_SIZE ||
                      b > EXT2_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE || *tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("bad block size - %s"), optarg);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  if (blocksize > 4096)
                        fprintf(stderr, _("Warning: blocksize %d not "
                                      "usable on most systems.\n"),
                              blocksize);
                  if (blocksize > 0) 
                        param.s_log_block_size =
                              int_log2(blocksize >>
                                     EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_LOG_SIZE);
                  break;
            case 'c':   /* Check for bad blocks */
            case 't':   /* deprecated */
                  cflag++;
                  break;
            case 'f':
                  size = strtoul(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  if (size < EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_SIZE ||
                      size > EXT2_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE || *tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("bad fragment size - %s"),
                              optarg);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  param.s_log_frag_size =
                        int_log2(size >> EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_LOG_SIZE);
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Warning: fragments not supported.  "
                         "Ignoring -f option\n"));
                  break;
            case 'g':
                  param.s_blocks_per_group = strtoul(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  if (*tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("Illegal number for blocks per group"));
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  if ((param.s_blocks_per_group % 8) != 0) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("blocks per group must be multiple of 8"));
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  break;
            case 'i':
                  inode_ratio = strtoul(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  if (inode_ratio < EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_SIZE ||
                      inode_ratio > EXT2_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE * 1024 ||
                      *tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("bad inode ratio %s (min %d/max %d"),
                              optarg, EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_SIZE,
                              EXT2_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  break;
            case 'J':
                  parse_journal_opts(optarg);
                  break;
            case 'j':
                  param.s_feature_compat |=
                        EXT3_FEATURE_COMPAT_HAS_JOURNAL;
                  if (!journal_size)
                        journal_size = -1;
                  break;
            case 'l':
                  bad_blocks_filename = malloc(strlen(optarg)+1);
                  if (!bad_blocks_filename) {
                        com_err(program_name, ENOMEM,
                              _("in malloc for bad_blocks_filename"));
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  strcpy(bad_blocks_filename, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'm':
                  reserved_ratio = strtoul(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  if (reserved_ratio > 50 || *tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("bad reserved blocks percent - %s"),
                              optarg);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  break;
            case 'n':
                  noaction++;
                  break;
            case 'o':
                  creator_os = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'r':
                  param.s_rev_level = atoi(optarg);
                  if (param.s_rev_level == EXT2_GOOD_OLD_REV) {
                        param.s_feature_incompat = 0;
                        param.s_feature_compat = 0;
                        param.s_feature_ro_compat = 0;
                  }
                  break;
            case 's':   /* deprecated */
                  if (atoi(optarg))
                        param.s_feature_ro_compat |=
                              EXT2_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER;
                  else 
                        param.s_feature_ro_compat &=
                              ~EXT2_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER;
                  break;
#ifdef EXT2_DYNAMIC_REV
            case 'I':
                  inode_size = strtoul(optarg, &tmp, 0);
                  if (*tmp) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                              _("bad inode size - %s"), optarg);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  break;
#endif
            case 'N':
                  num_inodes = atoi(optarg);
                  break;
            case 'v':
                  verbose = 1;
                  break;
            case 'q':
                  quiet = 1;
                  break;
            case 'F':
                  force = 1;
                  break;
            case 'L':
                  volume_label = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'M':
                  mount_dir = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'O':
                  if (!strcmp(optarg, "none")) {
                        param.s_feature_compat = 0;
                        param.s_feature_incompat = 0;
                        param.s_feature_ro_compat = 0;
                        break;
                  }
                  if (e2p_edit_feature(optarg,
                                  &param.s_feature_compat,
                                  ok_features)) {
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              _("Invalid filesystem option set: %s\n"), optarg);
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  break;
            case 'E':
            case 'R':
                  extended_opts = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'S':
                  super_only = 1;
                  break;
            case 'T':
                  fs_type = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'V':
                  /* Print version number and exit */
                  show_version_only++;
                  break;
            default:
                  usage();
            }
      }
      if ((optind == argc) && !show_version_only)
            usage();
      device_name = argv[optind++];

      if (!quiet || show_version_only)
            fprintf (stderr, "mke2fs %s (%s)\n", E2FSPROGS_VERSION, 
                   E2FSPROGS_DATE);

      if (show_version_only) {
            fprintf(stderr, _("\tUsing %s\n"), 
                  error_message(EXT2_ET_BASE));
            exit(0);
      }

      /*
       * If there's no blocksize specified and there is a journal
       * device, use it to figure out the blocksize
       */
      if (blocksize <= 0 && journal_device) {
            ext2_filsys jfs;
            io_manager  io_ptr;

#ifdef CONFIG_TESTIO_DEBUG
            io_ptr = test_io_manager;
            test_io_backing_manager = unix_io_manager;
#else
            io_ptr = unix_io_manager;
#endif
            retval = ext2fs_open(journal_device,
                             EXT2_FLAG_JOURNAL_DEV_OK, 0,
                             0, io_ptr, &jfs);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err(program_name, retval,
                        _("while trying to open journal device %s\n"),
                        journal_device);
                  exit(1);
            }
            if ((blocksize < 0) && (jfs->blocksize < (unsigned) (-blocksize))) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("Journal dev blocksize (%d) smaller than "
                          "minimum blocksize %d\n"), jfs->blocksize,
                        -blocksize);
                  exit(1);
            }
            blocksize = jfs->blocksize;
            param.s_log_block_size =
                  int_log2(blocksize >> EXT2_MIN_BLOCK_LOG_SIZE);
            ext2fs_close(jfs);
      }

      if (blocksize > sys_page_size) {
            if (!force) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("%d-byte blocks too big for system (max %d)"),
                        blocksize, sys_page_size);
                  proceed_question();
            }
            fprintf(stderr, _("Warning: %d-byte blocks too big for system "
                          "(max %d), forced to continue\n"),
                  blocksize, sys_page_size);
      }
      if ((blocksize > 4096) &&
          (param.s_feature_compat & EXT3_FEATURE_COMPAT_HAS_JOURNAL))
            fprintf(stderr, "\nWarning: some 2.4 kernels do not support "
                  "blocksizes greater than 4096 \n\tusing ext3."
                  "  Use -b 4096 if this is an issue for you.\n\n");

      if (optind < argc) {
            param.s_blocks_count = parse_num_blocks(argv[optind++], 
                        param.s_log_block_size);
            if (!param.s_blocks_count) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0, _("bad blocks count - %s"),
                        argv[optind - 1]);
                  exit(1);
            }
      }
      if (optind < argc)
            usage();

      if (param.s_feature_incompat & EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_JOURNAL_DEV) {
            if (!fs_type)
                  fs_type = "journal";
            reserved_ratio = 0;
            param.s_feature_incompat = EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_JOURNAL_DEV;
            param.s_feature_compat = 0;
            param.s_feature_ro_compat = 0;
      }
      if (param.s_rev_level == EXT2_GOOD_OLD_REV &&
          (param.s_feature_compat || param.s_feature_ro_compat ||
           param.s_feature_incompat))
            param.s_rev_level = 1;  /* Create a revision 1 filesystem */

      if (!force)
            check_plausibility(device_name);
      check_mount(device_name, force, _("filesystem"));

      param.s_log_frag_size = param.s_log_block_size;

      if (noaction && param.s_blocks_count) {
            dev_size = param.s_blocks_count;
            retval = 0;
      } else {
      retry:
            retval = ext2fs_get_device_size(device_name,
                                    EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(&param),
                                    &dev_size);
            if ((retval == EFBIG) &&
                (blocksize == 0) && 
                (param.s_log_block_size == 0)) {
                  param.s_log_block_size = 2;
                  blocksize = 4096;
                  goto retry;
            }
      }
                  
      if (retval && (retval != EXT2_ET_UNIMPLEMENTED)) {
            com_err(program_name, retval,
                  _("while trying to determine filesystem size"));
            exit(1);
      }
      if (!param.s_blocks_count) {
            if (retval == EXT2_ET_UNIMPLEMENTED) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("Couldn't determine device size; you "
                        "must specify\nthe size of the "
                        "filesystem\n"));
                  exit(1);
            } else {
                  if (dev_size == 0) {
                        com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("Device size reported to be zero.  "
                          "Invalid partition specified, or\n\t"
                          "partition table wasn't reread "
                          "after running fdisk, due to\n\t"
                          "a modified partition being busy "
                          "and in use.  You may need to reboot\n\t"
                          "to re-read your partition table.\n"
                          ));
                        exit(1);
                  }
                  param.s_blocks_count = dev_size;
                  if (sys_page_size > EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(&param))
                        param.s_blocks_count &= ~((sys_page_size /
                                             EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(&param))-1);
            }
            
      } else if (!force && (param.s_blocks_count > dev_size)) {
            com_err(program_name, 0,
                  _("Filesystem larger than apparent device size."));
            proceed_question();
      }

      /*
       * If the user asked for HAS_JOURNAL, then make sure a journal
       * gets created.
       */
      if ((param.s_feature_compat & EXT3_FEATURE_COMPAT_HAS_JOURNAL) &&
          !journal_size)
            journal_size = -1;

      /* Set first meta blockgroup via an environment variable */
      /* (this is mostly for debugging purposes) */
      if ((param.s_feature_incompat & EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_META_BG) &&
          ((tmp = getenv("MKE2FS_FIRST_META_BG"))))
            param.s_first_meta_bg = atoi(tmp);

      /* Get the hardware sector size, if available */
      retval = ext2fs_get_device_sectsize(device_name, &sector_size);
      if (retval) {
            com_err(program_name, retval,
                  _("while trying to determine hardware sector size"));
            exit(1);
      }

      if ((tmp = getenv("MKE2FS_DEVICE_SECTSIZE")) != NULL)
            sector_size = atoi(tmp);
      
      set_fs_defaults(fs_type, &param, blocksize, sector_size, &inode_ratio);
      blocksize = EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(&param);
      
      if (extended_opts)
            parse_extended_opts(&param, extended_opts);

      /* Since sparse_super is the default, we would only have a problem
       * here if it was explicitly disabled.
       */
      if ((param.s_feature_compat & EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_RESIZE_INODE) &&
          !(param.s_feature_ro_compat&EXT2_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SPARSE_SUPER)) {
            com_err(program_name, 0,
                  _("reserved online resize blocks not supported "
                    "on non-sparse filesystem"));
            exit(1);
      }

      if (param.s_blocks_per_group) {
            if (param.s_blocks_per_group < 256 ||
                param.s_blocks_per_group > 8 * (unsigned) blocksize) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("blocks per group count out of range"));
                  exit(1);
            }
      }

      if (inode_size) {
            if (inode_size < EXT2_GOOD_OLD_INODE_SIZE ||
                inode_size > EXT2_BLOCK_SIZE(&param) ||
                inode_size & (inode_size - 1)) {
                  com_err(program_name, 0,
                        _("bad inode size %d (min %d/max %d)"),
                        inode_size, EXT2_GOOD_OLD_INODE_SIZE,
                        blocksize);
                  exit(1);
            }
            if (inode_size != EXT2_GOOD_OLD_INODE_SIZE)
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Warning: %d-byte inodes not usable "
                        "on most systems\n"),
                        inode_size);
            param.s_inode_size = inode_size;
      }

      /*
       * Calculate number of inodes based on the inode ratio
       */
      param.s_inodes_count = num_inodes ? num_inodes : 
            ((__u64) param.s_blocks_count * blocksize)
                  / inode_ratio;

      /*
       * Calculate number of blocks to reserve
       */
      param.s_r_blocks_count = (param.s_blocks_count * reserved_ratio) / 100;
}

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
      errcode_t   retval = 0;
      ext2_filsys fs;
      badblocks_list    bb_list = 0;
      int         journal_blocks;
      unsigned int      i;
      int         val;
      io_manager  io_ptr;

#ifdef ENABLE_NLS
      setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, "");
      setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");
      bindtextdomain(NLS_CAT_NAME, LOCALEDIR);
      textdomain(NLS_CAT_NAME);
#endif
      PRS(argc, argv);

#ifdef CONFIG_TESTIO_DEBUG
      io_ptr = test_io_manager;
      test_io_backing_manager = unix_io_manager;
#else
      io_ptr = unix_io_manager;
#endif

      /*
       * Initialize the superblock....
       */
      retval = ext2fs_initialize(device_name, 0, &param,
                           io_ptr, &fs);
      if (retval) {
            com_err(device_name, retval, _("while setting up superblock"));
            exit(1);
      }

      /*
       * Wipe out the old on-disk superblock
       */
      if (!noaction)
            zap_sector(fs, 2, 6);

      /*
       * Generate a UUID for it...
       */
      uuid_generate(fs->super->s_uuid);

      /*
       * Initialize the directory index variables
       */
      fs->super->s_def_hash_version = EXT2_HASH_TEA;
      uuid_generate((unsigned char *) fs->super->s_hash_seed);

      /*
       * Add "jitter" to the superblock's check interval so that we
       * don't check all the filesystems at the same time.  We use a
       * kludgy hack of using the UUID to derive a random jitter value.
       */
      for (i = 0, val = 0 ; i < sizeof(fs->super->s_uuid); i++)
            val += fs->super->s_uuid[i];
      fs->super->s_max_mnt_count += val % EXT2_DFL_MAX_MNT_COUNT;

      /*
       * Override the creator OS, if applicable
       */
      if (creator_os && !set_os(fs->super, creator_os)) {
            com_err (program_name, 0, _("unknown os - %s"), creator_os);
            exit(1);
      }

      /*
       * For the Hurd, we will turn off filetype since it doesn't
       * support it.
       */
      if (fs->super->s_creator_os == EXT2_OS_HURD)
            fs->super->s_feature_incompat &=
                  ~EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_FILETYPE;

      /*
       * Set the volume label...
       */
      if (volume_label) {
            memset(fs->super->s_volume_name, 0,
                   sizeof(fs->super->s_volume_name));
            strncpy(fs->super->s_volume_name, volume_label,
                  sizeof(fs->super->s_volume_name));
      }

      /*
       * Set the last mount directory
       */
      if (mount_dir) {
            memset(fs->super->s_last_mounted, 0,
                   sizeof(fs->super->s_last_mounted));
            strncpy(fs->super->s_last_mounted, mount_dir,
                  sizeof(fs->super->s_last_mounted));
      }
      
      if (!quiet || noaction)
            show_stats(fs);

      if (noaction)
            exit(0);

      if (fs->super->s_feature_incompat &
          EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_JOURNAL_DEV) {
            create_journal_dev(fs);
            exit(ext2fs_close(fs) ? 1 : 0);
      }

      if (bad_blocks_filename)
            read_bb_file(fs, &bb_list, bad_blocks_filename);
      if (cflag)
            test_disk(fs, &bb_list);

      handle_bad_blocks(fs, bb_list);
      fs->stride = fs_stride;
      retval = ext2fs_allocate_tables(fs);
      if (retval) {
            com_err(program_name, retval,
                  _("while trying to allocate filesystem tables"));
            exit(1);
      }
      if (super_only) {
            fs->super->s_state |= EXT2_ERROR_FS;
            fs->flags &= ~(EXT2_FLAG_IB_DIRTY|EXT2_FLAG_BB_DIRTY);
      } else {
            /* rsv must be a power of two (64kB is MD RAID sb alignment) */
            unsigned int rsv = 65536 / fs->blocksize;
            unsigned long blocks = fs->super->s_blocks_count;
            unsigned long start;
            blk_t ret_blk;

#ifdef ZAP_BOOTBLOCK
            zap_sector(fs, 0, 2);
#endif

            /*
             * Wipe out any old MD RAID (or other) metadata at the end
             * of the device.  This will also verify that the device is
             * as large as we think.  Be careful with very small devices.
             */
            start = (blocks & ~(rsv - 1));
            if (start > rsv)
                  start -= rsv;
            if (start > 0)
                  retval = zero_blocks(fs, start, blocks - start,
                                   NULL, &ret_blk, NULL);

            if (retval) {
                  com_err(program_name, retval,
                        _("while zeroing block %u at end of filesystem"),
                        ret_blk);
            }
            write_inode_tables(fs);
            create_root_dir(fs);
            create_lost_and_found(fs);
            reserve_inodes(fs);
            create_bad_block_inode(fs, bb_list);
            if (fs->super->s_feature_compat & 
                EXT2_FEATURE_COMPAT_RESIZE_INODE) {
                  retval = ext2fs_create_resize_inode(fs);
                  if (retval) {
                        com_err("ext2fs_create_resize_inode", retval,
                        _("while reserving blocks for online resize"));
                        exit(1);
                  }
            }
      }

      if (journal_device) {
            ext2_filsys jfs;
            
            if (!force)
                  check_plausibility(journal_device); 
            check_mount(journal_device, force, _("journal"));

            retval = ext2fs_open(journal_device, EXT2_FLAG_RW|
                             EXT2_FLAG_JOURNAL_DEV_OK, 0,
                             fs->blocksize, unix_io_manager, &jfs);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err(program_name, retval,
                        _("while trying to open journal device %s\n"),
                        journal_device);
                  exit(1);
            }
            if (!quiet) {
                  printf(_("Adding journal to device %s: "), 
                         journal_device);
                  fflush(stdout);
            }
            retval = ext2fs_add_journal_device(fs, jfs);
            if(retval) {
                  com_err (program_name, retval, 
                         _("\n\twhile trying to add journal to device %s"), 
                         journal_device);
                  exit(1);
            }
            if (!quiet)
                  printf(_("done\n"));
            ext2fs_close(jfs);
            free(journal_device);
      } else if (journal_size) {
            journal_blocks = figure_journal_size(journal_size, fs);

            if (!journal_blocks) {
                  fs->super->s_feature_compat &=
                        ~EXT3_FEATURE_COMPAT_HAS_JOURNAL;
                  goto no_journal;
            }
            if (!quiet) {
                  printf(_("Creating journal (%d blocks): "),
                         journal_blocks);
                  fflush(stdout);
            }
            retval = ext2fs_add_journal_inode(fs, journal_blocks,
                                      journal_flags);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err (program_name, retval,
                         _("\n\twhile trying to create journal"));
                  exit(1);
            }
            if (!quiet)
                  printf(_("done\n"));
      }
no_journal:

      if (!quiet)
            printf(_("Writing superblocks and "
                   "filesystem accounting information: "));
      retval = ext2fs_flush(fs);
      if (retval) {
            fprintf(stderr,
                  _("\nWarning, had trouble writing out superblocks."));
      }
      if (!quiet) {
            printf(_("done\n\n"));
            if (!getenv("MKE2FS_SKIP_CHECK_MSG"))
                  print_check_message(fs);
      }
      val = ext2fs_close(fs);
      return (retval || val) ? 1 : 0;
}

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